In the context of the protracted armed conflict, civilians have suffered from gross violations of international human rights and humanitarian law committed by both government forces and non-state armed groups. Hundreds of thousands of victims have lost their lives in the conflict, and more than half of the population has been displaced.
Government forces have subjected the civilian population to indiscriminate and deliberate attacks, including through the use of illegal weapons, amounting to war crimes. Extrajudicial executions, arbitrary detention and torture have become pervasive. Moreover, the practice of enforced disappearance has reached unprecedented levels and constitutes a crime against humanity, as it is used in a widespread and systematic manner.
Non-state armed groups have also been involved in committing gross acts of violence against civilians, as well as resorted to kidnappings and torture. Moreover, international actors involved in the conflict, in particular Russia and the United States, have failed to take any precautionary measures to protect the civilian population and civilian objects, leading to thousands of deaths in airstrikes.